Aftermath of the Holocaust
Aaron H.
  • America stumbled onto the concentration camps by accident. They initially wanted to stop Hitler from taking over the world.
  • The soviets liberated Auschwitz in January of 1945. Only 3000-5000 Jews left, most of them were marched to different countries.
  • U.S. forces liberated 20,000 Buchenwald on April 11, 1945
  • U.S. forces also liberated Dora-Mittelbau, Flossenberg, Dachau & Mautausen camps
  • Britain liberated camps in northern Germany in 1945; they liberated 60,000 prisoners near death
  • Jews were set on a long road to recovery
  • Many Jews could not go back to their homes because they did not have homes anymore, and if they did, anti-semitics were rioting against the Jews in the homes they were living in their homes.
  • it was almost impossible for Jews to go home in Poland
  • POGROM-an anti-semitic march; largest pogrom was held in Poland in 1946-42 Jews were beaten to death
  • many surviving Jews went to "Displaced Persons Camps", this was their permanent home
  • ZIONISM-the movement of Jews to get a new home in Palestine
  • by the end of WWII, the population of Palestine was 70% Arab and 30% Jew
  • some believers in God couldn't believe any more because they think of how he could let that happen to themDP_camps.jpg

  • many Nazis fled the country to avoid trials/execution
  • some low level Nazis took jobs as teachers or government officials and led a normal life
  • NUREMBERG TRIAL-greatest trial against nazis in historyexternal image prisoner-s-dock-at-the-nuremberg-trials-919991,property=poster.jpg
  • first and most famous trial in Nuremberg-Trial of the Major War Criminals Before International Military Tribunal
  • some Nazis fled to South America, but were tracked down by Israeli hit squads
  • Simon Wiesenthal - most famous Nazi hunter
  • on April 30, 1945 Adolf Hitler had succesfully committed suicide

Sabrina L.
  • Jews and survivors were in absolute horrible conditions
  • 7-9 million people were displaced by the end of the war and wandered where to go
  • Jews knew that they didn't want to live in the former villages that had now become "Jewish Graveyards" in the war
  • Allies set up DP Camps in Germany (where American, British, and French military controlled them and United Nations took care of them)
  • Resettling and protecting displaced people="job" of United Nations Relief and Rehabilation Administration (UNRRA) and then the International Refugee Organization (IRO) took over "job"
  • Movement to DP Camps was organized and illegal and known as "B'richa"
  • Organizations started forming inside the DP Camps with mostly a Zionist focus
  • Zionism-movement to establish a new independent homeland for Jews in Palestine=Peace, freedom, and strength and security
  • Jews wanted to go Palestine, but immigration there was restricted by the British White Paper of 1939, and it was owned by British
  • U.S. and Britain had to find homes for Jews, so U.S. reluctantly increased its immigration quota
  • Britain held Palestine as mandated territory and was hesitant to possibly alienate the Arabs who didn't want Palestine to be a Jewish homeland
  • 1947-a series of bills were introduced in U.S. for congress to relax immigration quotas, but none were passed
  • Nov. 29,1947-United Nations General Assembly adopted a plan that divided Palestine into an Arab state and a Jewish state with Jerusalem under international control
  • May 14, 1948-Jews proclaimed the independent state of Israel as theirs and Britain withdrew from Palestine
  • Jews also found new homes in France, Great Britain, and Canada
  • May 1948-U.S. legislature passed the Displaced Persons' Act of 1948, but had strong antisemitic elements which limited the number of Jewish Displace Persons who could emigrate to U.S.. Truman reluctantly signed the law though and in June 1950 (2yrs later) the antisemitic provisions were eliminated from the law
  • U.S. troops led compulsory tours of concentration camps to the neighboring population bc of the shockingness of what they found
  • Post war trials...-Nuremburg Trials - British trials of cmmandant and staff of Bergen-Belsen camp, those responsible for forced labor, and executives and owners of the manufacturer of Zyklon B. among others - Netherlands, Hungary, Norway, Poland, West Germany, and Romania brought war criminals to trial - Auschwitz trials - trials of Klaus Barbie and Maurice Papon(1996-98) - revalations of Francois Mitterrand in 1944
  • During last yrs of war, allied countries created a War Crimes Commission and began listing war criminals with intent to persecute
  • International Military Tribunal was chartered and composed of the 4 allied nations (U.S., Great Britain, France, and Union of Soviet Socialist Republicans)-they prosecuted major war criminals
  • Capture and trial of Adolf Eichmann=very important
  • There may have been financial transactions between Nazis and European countries and business that profited from the genocide or at least the attempt of it
  • Nazis escaped punishments in various ways and sometime even escaped their identities as Nazis

Pictures of how victims looked:

external image berlin2.jpgBuchenwald Concentration Camp

external image Mauthausen45.jpg

Mauthausen Survivors

external image corpses.jpgAuschwitz Concentration Camp

external image ebensee0545.jpgSurvivors

Aaron C.

  • the first people to liberate a concentration camp were the Russians (Majdanek)
Americans were not really concerned on the rescue of Jews and delayed publicizing reports of massive genocide
  • Americans also delayed by unsuccessful meetings in Bermuda with Great Britain
  • did begin to free refugees in liberated zones in 1944
  • However, when U.S. troops saw what had happened they began to lead mandatory tours of concentration camps for neighboring populations
  • Also forced certain German citizens to bury all corpses in the camps

  • VICTIMS AND EFFECTS OF THE HOLOCAUST external image Eleanor.gif
  • After the Jews were freed they refused to return home due to antisemitism and pogroms
  • POGROMS- anti-Jewish riots and marches
  • Allies put victims in refugee camps and displaced person camps (DP camps)
  • In the camps many high-ranking officials such as Eleanor Roosevelt visited the victims
* the Jewish Brigade Group organized an "exodus" of 250,000 Jews from Europe which was also known as Brihah
  • American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee gave victims food and clothing
  • Holocaust led to talks about a Jewish land
  • ZIONISM- the process of establishing an independent homeland for Jews
  • Since most of the Jews refused to return home the U.N. split Palestine the "Holy Land" into two and Israel was deemed a country in May 1948 three years after the end of the Holocaust
  • There is now an International Holocaust Remembrance Day which is celebrated on January 27ElieW.gif
  • Although it was only recognized in 2006, it marks a wonderful day for Jews; the day that Auschwitz-Birkenau was liberated
  • In fact, all U.N. members are obligated to honor victims and set up anti-genocide programs that help to reject denial of the Holocaustexternal image gerdaklein_small.jpg
  • TO THE RIGHT: Two Holocaust survivors, Elie Wiesel and Gerda Weissmann Klein
  • Directly after the Holocaust, the Nazis and Hitler fell apart
  • On April 30, 1945 Hitler committed suicide rather than face the court
  • The most famous trials against the Nazis were held in Nuremburg external image 250px-NurembergTrials.jpg
  • The Nuremburg Trials began on October 6, 1945; charged 24 Nazi leaders and 6 organization
  • All of the charges took 4 hours to read and the case itself lasted for almost a year
  • Only 2 of the defendants plead "guilty" on charges of crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity
  • At one point in the trial, a documentary was shown that angered judges
  • Out of all the defendants, 1 commited suicide, 1 died of illness before a sentence, 12 received death sentences, 3 received life imprisonment, and the other 4 were sentenced to rather long imprisonment time
  • Because allied nations were very with the Nazis and the Holocaust, the troops set up the International Military Tribunal which included the countries of the U.S, Great Britain, France, and the U.S.S.R.
  • This group was given the task of prosecuting major Nazi war criminals
  • The individual countries of the Netherlands, Hungary, Norway, Poland, West Germany, and Romania also held trials against war criminals
  • British officials held trials of commandant and staff of Bergen-Belsen; this included those responsible for forced labor and owners and manufacturers of Zyklon B
  • ZYKLON B- gas used in gas chambers to kill Jews in the concentration camps

Ashley Cleaver(FLAVORR FLAV)
  • (an individual persons story) Francis Akos who was born in 1922 in Budapest, Hungary
  • after the holocaust, hitler and nazi control fell quickly apart
  • Hitler ended his life on april 30, 1945
  • the holocaust began to lead to talks of a jewish land starting
  • after german soilders occupied Hungary in Marh 1944 Francis was deported to Nevengamme (concentration camp)
  • Nevengamme was located on the outskirts of Hamburg, Germany
  • some who were religious (believing in god, the afterlife, etc.) lost all belief after the holocaust because of the idea of "if there were a god, why would he/she let this happen?" many jewish people lost all belief
  • later in time, allies advanced forward, so Francis and other prisoners were transported from Nevengamme
  • Jews were than placed on a cargo ship which sailed into Luebeck Bay
  • Nazis often used euphemistic language to disguise the true crimes that they were committing
  • many Nazis fled the country to flee from trials and execution
  • according to vocabulary germans were thought as being "superior" and jews were looked at as being "unworthy of life."
  • due to immigration laws the U.S. admitted an estimated 80,000 Jews displaced persons between 1945 and 1952
  • a huge number and variety of Jewish agencies worked together to help the homeless Jews after the holocaust
  • american jewish joint distribution committee provided the holocaust survivors with food and clothing
  • tens of thousands of homeless holocaust survivors migrated west to other European territories that were safe and under control by allies
  • jews were housed in refugee centers and displaced persons camps
  • one of the most famous trials against the nazis were held in NUREMBERG TRIAL
after liberation a large amount of jewish survivors refused to return to their previous homes because of antisemitisim that was still alive in parts of Europe and trauma they had suffered.media456.jpgwomen_barracks.jpg